Changes in the hepatic and renal structure and function after a growth promoter boldenone injection in rabbits
Boldenone is an androgenic steroid that improves the growth and food conversion in food producing animals. In most countries worldwide, this anabolic steroid is forbidden for meat production. Recently, it is used by bodybuilders in both off-season and pre-contest, where it is well known for increasing vascularity while preparing for a bodybuilding contest. Therefore, our study was designed to investigate the possible effect of using growth promoter boldenone undecylenate on the rabbit liver and kidney structure and functions. Thirty-two adult New Zealand rabbits were divided into four groups. Control group includes animals that injected intramuscularly with olive oil and dissected after 3 weeks. Three experimental groups include animals that receive one, two and three intramuscular injections of 5 mg/kg body weight boldenone, respectively and dissected after 3, 6 and 9 weeks respectively, where the interval of each dose of boldenone was three weeks. Intramuscular injection of rabbits with boldenone increased the serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), urea and creatinine compared with the control group. We also found significant increases in the total protein, total lipid, nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver and kidney tissues compared with the control group. Intramuscular injection of rabbits with boldenone exhibited mild to severe histopathological lesions in liver tissue as hepatocellular vacuolation in the centrilobular region and sinusoids and in the kidney, the renal glomerulei had completely lost their typical shape with the appearance of some vacuoles of different shapes and sizes with markedly congested sinusoidal and dilated blood vessels. These findings suggest that misuse of growth promoter boldenone undecylenate may contribute to continuous damage of the hepatic and renal function and structure that may lead to a progressive hepatic and renal diseases, so people should be careful if they want to use such steroids to enhance their strength and endurance.