Abstract Our understanding of Irenaeus’ Spirit-Christology has benefited from several noteworthy studies published over the course of the past century. These investigations, however, failed to reach a consensus on whether Irenaeus’ Spirit-Christology jeopardizes his Trinitarian logic. The purpose of this article is to provide a long-overdue reexamination of Irenaeus’ utilization of Spirit-Christology. I argue Spirit-Christology does have a place in Irenaeus’ theology, but that it poses no threat to his Trinitarian logic. I contend that two passages, previously thought to identify the Holy Spirit with the person of Christ, refer to the reception of the Holy Spirit by the believer for his or her redemption. Moreover, I maintain two other passages do not use Spirit language to refer to the person of Christ, but his divinity.
Abstract So far, scholarship on early Christian liturgical prayer to Christ has neglected two relevant texts of Tertullian: De Spect. 25.5 and Apol. 2.6. This article points out that both texts reflect Tertullian’s awareness and approval of the liturgical practice of addressing Christ in prayer. It is suggested that in the pre-Arian period, liturgical prayer to Christ was more accepted, prevalent, and established than is commonly held in scholarship.
Abstract The bulk of Basil of Caesarea’s neglected Homilia in sanctam Christi generationem is a commentary on select verses of Matthew 1:18-2:11. He explicitly approves or rejects other interpretations, though without ever naming their authors. This study does not merely identify his sources and interlocutors, but more importantly examines how he engaged with previous and contemporary theologians and exegetes in a critical, selective, and creative manner. It shows that while Basil may have borrowed from Eusebius of Caesarea and refuted Eunomius, his primary conversation partner was Origen. Basil’s use of Origen is by no means uniform, but ranges from wholesale adoption to outright rejection. Hence it is in his appropriation of Origen that Basil’s critical, selective, and creative engagement with exegetical traditions is most clearly seen. This study concludes with a typology of seven ways in which Basil engaged with Origen in this homily.
This article sheds new light on a crucial moment in the emerging Christological controversy. Among the key developments that occurred between 360 and the early 380s, the Christological debate between Apollinarius of Laodicea and Diodore of Tarsus made a significant, though largely misunderstood, impact on the Christological works of Gregory of Nazianzus. The article first characterizes the main Christological concerns of Apollinarius and Diodore and identifies the points of contention between them. It then gives a new interpretation of Gregory’s relationship to this debate. It argues, finally, that Gregory Nazianzen defines his Christology chiefly in opposition to Diodore, rather than to Apollinarius, as is commonly believed, even as he opposes them both in the end.
Abstract In the research on the relationship between early Christianity and ancient culture, two passages from the work of Jerome, i.e. in Tit. 1, 12 and epist. 70, 2, play an important role. There, the author answers the controversial question if and in which way a Christian was allowed to cite the works of ancient pagan authors. In what follows will be suggested that in both passages Jerome himself used a prominent source of Greek exegesis, namely the Homilies which Johannes Chrysostomos had held in Antiochia.