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Chapter Summary

Information has become an indispensable tool in environmental protection. Information requirements and increased external transparency are part of modern, "reflexive" environmental law that seeks to promote the proactive internalization of norms by stakeholders rather than to control the stakeholders' external behavior. In view of the multiplicity of the information requirement-related variables, the scrutiny in this chapter is subdivided; the generic categories of mandatory and voluntary information requirements were selected. Mandatory information requirements may be of two closely related types: those on "negative content" and "neutral content". There are, in the European Community and the United States today, numerous negative and neutral mandatory information requirements, which apply to electronics that have been proposed at state and federal levels. Voluntary information schemes usually convey positive environmental information about a product to the public. The multi-criteria information schemes may be divided into two groups: report-card type self-declarations ("eco-declarations") and seal-of-approval-type labeling schemes ("eco-labels").

Keywords: environmental protection; European community; information requirements; mandatory information requirements; stakeholders; United States; voluntary information requirements



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