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International Education And National Education

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Chapter Summary

This chapter discusses Yamaji Aizan's broad-minded view of international relations between Japan and the world, which has been neglected in previous studies of Yamaji. It argues that Yamaji attempted to explode the myth of Japanese uniqueness that was propagated by state-centred nationalists. Second, he insisted that international education would become indispensable for those who lived and worked in the new age of internationalization and that the traditional Japanese spirit of bushidō should be abandoned. In his essay published in 1911, Yamaji Aizan also criticized the Nihonjinron discussed by Haga Yaichi and Tomonaga Sanjūrō (1871-1951), a philosophy professor at Kyoto Imperial University. Like Fukuzawa Yukichi, Yamaji Aizan believed that it was necessary to establish new morals in place of Confucian morals and was critical of bushidō based on Confucianism. Japanese history showed that the people had accepted different ideas from various civilizations and had assimilated them into their own culture.

Keywords: bushidō; confucian morals; Fukuzawa Yukichi; international education; national education; Nihonjinron; traditional Japanese spirit; Yamaji Aizan



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