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Chapter Summary

Reading Philipp Franz Von Siebold's advice, especially the kind of advice he combined with his sense of expertise and infallibility, one gets the impression that von Siebold was driven by a kind of self-aggrandizement. We get the same impression from the way he was offering his services to the Dutch, Americans and, especially, to the Russians. This understanding seems to imply, however, that he used Japan and other nations for his own benefit and ambition. Some of von Siebold's letters and advice let one believe that self-aggrandizement was his main driving force. Von Siebold was repeatedly denied access to the diplomatic and political world. He was driven by a sense of destiny, produced not just by an allegedly boundless personal ambition but, by an acute awareness of being in the right place at the right time, that is, by a sense of destiny.

Keywords: Dutch commercial interests; Japan; Philipp Franz Von Siebold; Russia



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