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Modern Population Trends, M-Curve Labor-Force Participation And The Family

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Chapter Summary

Three major challenges characterize modern population trends: social complexity; transition from a demographic dividend to a demographic onus; and the strong impact on the family of the changing structure of labor-force participation. A "demographic dividend" is a beneficial feature of an age structure in which the working-age population, following a decline in fertility, is growing more rapidly than the overall population. This chapter maintains that the demographic transition alone does not automatically result in a demographic dividend. If a state is not equipped with appropriate policies and supporting institutional mechanisms, it may face a burden rather than a dividend, or may lose the chance to maximize the benefits of a demographic dividend in time to provide resources for the future. Population trends in modern societies are more than ever determined by economic policies and visions designed to enhance a country's international competitiveness on a sustained basis.

Keywords: family; labor-force participation; modern population trends



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