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Chapter Summary

This is the concluding chapter of the book The English-language Press Networks of East Asia, 1918-1945. A major theme of this book has been Japan's reliance on foreign, usually British or American, journalists, writers, agents and spokesmen to write, organize and present the Japanese position to the Western world. In the period under review, close to one hundred of these hired publicists came to Japan's semi-official journalism from a variety of backgrounds. The writings and the positions held by these non-Japanese publicists challenge established binaries like semi-official/independent and government/opposition and raise difficult questions which this book has tried to address, sometimes by looking beyond the East Asian context. Working in the Foreign Ministry network, Irishmen, Englishmen, Australians, Americans and Asian Americans wrote and sometimes ran Japan's informal diplomacy in East Asia.

Keywords: Americans; Asian Americans; Australians; East Asia; English-language; Foreign Ministry network; Japan; Western world



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