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Human Rights And The Structure Of The Scientific Enterprise

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Chapter Summary

Academic science is the science practised in the open scientific community, in which members present their research for debate and discussion by their colleagues, and seek recognition of their work through publication in scientific journals. In the old days, knowledge and information were the private monopoly of a select group of people, transmitted orally or secretly through manuscripts. Industrial science as practised in private laboratories has had much in common with defence science and little in common with academic science. The sociology of science as an established discipline has developed considerably during the last two decades but so far its major interest has continued to be the analysis of traditional academic science. Medical and life sciences used to be primarily service sciences of the first grade and there was little intervention from industry or the military between scientists and the general public.

Keywords: academic science; defence science; industrial science; scientific community; scientific journals



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