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Mrs Hugh Fraser

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Chapter Summary

The thirty-year hiatus between the writing of Mrs.Hodgson and that of Mrs.Hugh Fraser not only saw marked changes in both the political and cultural life in Japan, but also in the social roles and expectations of Victorian women. The two main political parties started their own organizations for Liberal and for Conservative women, and the Women's Protective and Provident League for organized workers was founded in 1875. The most important development in transport in Japan was the opening of the railways. By 1890, modernization had impacted on Japanese people of all ranks, whether urban resident or rural peasant, as the state sought to prohibit many customs and practices which had been accepted for centuries. The Japan experienced by Mrs.Fraser and Baroness d'Anethan, was not only radically transformed culturally and physically, it also had undergone far-reaching political changes.

Keywords: Japanese people; Mrs.Hodgson; Mrs.Hugh Fraser; Victorian women



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