Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here


Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this chapter

+ Tax (if applicable)

Chapter Summary

There are two modes in Western Old Japanese: affirmative and negative. The affirmative mode does not have a special marker. The negative mode is marked by the suffixes -an---n-, -aNs- ~. There are two tenses in Western Old Japanese: present-future, with a zero marker, and past, marked by the auxiliary -kyi. Irregular polysyllabic verbs were under structural pressure to become regular, and in quite a similar way, regular monosyllabic vowel verbs were under structural pressure to become irregular. The fact that the defective verb to has a limited usage in Western Old Japanese, both qualitatively and especially quantitatively, strongly suggests that it is a kind of anomaly. The defective verb ro 'to be' is most frequently attested in combination with the following emphatic particle kamo, which prompted some Japanese scholars to treat it as a single exclamatory particle rokamo.

Keywords: Japanese scholars; monosyllabic vowel verbs; polysyllabic verbs



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    A Descriptive and Comparative Grammar of Western Old Japanese — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation