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Chapter Summary

Adverbs derived from adjectives and nouns with the help of the infinitive form n-i of the defective verb n- 'to be'. In this chapter the author deals exclusively with pure adverbs. There are two phonetic variants: it a and ito both with the same meaning 'very, extremely'. The first variant ita is rarer, but it is attested in earlier texts. The second variant ito occurs more frequently, but its first attestations appear only in the Man yoshu. The adverb mata 'again' and its phonetic variants are attested throughout Ryukyuan. There are no obvious cognates of iyoyo in Eastern Old Japanese or Ryukyuan. The adverb motona 'for no reason' is attested only in one Eastern Old Japanese poem that has no distinctive Eastern features and looks like a normal Western Old Japanese text. The adverb potopoto is not attested in Eastern Old Japanese or Ryukyuan.

Keywords: adverbs; Eastern Old Japanese; Ryukyuan



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