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Chapter Summary

There are eight conjunctions in Western Old Japanese: tomo, mono ~ monowo, monokara, napey, Nkane, Nkani, karani, and twoni. The conjunction tomo 'even if, even though' follows the final form of verbs and the infinitive form -ku of inflected adjectives. The conjunction mono ~ monowo 'although, but' follows the attributive form of verbs and inflected adjectives as well as those verbal forms that are ambivalent to the final/attributive distinction, but are essentially attributive in nature, such as the subjunctive in -(a)masi. It seems that the conjunction monokara 'although' is synonymous with monowo 'id', although it occurs much less frequently than the latter. There are only five examples of it in Western Old Japanese in phonetic or partially phonetic script, and one is completely semantographic. The conjunction Nkani 'like, as if, so that' is not very frequent in Western Old Japanese and all attestations are confined to the Man 'yoshu.

Keywords: conjunctions; Man 'yoshu; monokara; monowo; tomo



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