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Cultural Diplomacy In Action: The Zenrin Kyōkai In Inner Mongolia, 1933-45

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Chapter Summary

The Zenrinkyo¯kaiwas a semi-official Japanese organization that provided medical assistance and educational opportunities to the Mongols of Chahar and Suiyuan provinces, that is, to an Inner Mongolian population living on the fringes of the Han Chinese Republic. The Zenrin kyo¯kaiin Inner Mongolia resembles two Japanese organizations active in Manchukuo: the Kyo¯wakai (Concordia Association) and the Research Section of the semi-official South Manchurian Railway Company. All three were agents of Japanese cultural diplomacy, and, while established for different purposes, were used in practice to extend Japanese influence into areas not always under direct military control. The South Manchurian Railway Company Research Department, established in April 1907, underwent considerable restructuring in the years that followed. The Zenrin kyo¯ kaiwas an important component of the Japanese authorities' attempts to woo both the Mongol and Muslim populations of Inner Mongolia through 'cultural diplomacy'.

Keywords: Chahar; cultural diplomacy; Japanese organization; Manchukuo; Mongolia; Muslim populations; South Manchurian Railway Company Research Department



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