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Chapter Summary

In the years immediately following the Meiji Restoration, Japanese leaders struggled not only to modernize their country, but also to engage in new ways both with the dominant European powers and with the countries of their own region. Mongolia has usually been regarded by historians of modern Japan as a minor arena of Japanese activity on the Chinese continent in the years before 1945. Long before the modern period, Mongolia had been a significant power in the region, and at the time of the great khans, from the twelfth to the fourteenth centuries, it had been at the centre of the world stage. Throughout the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Japanese leaders negotiated a series of diplomatic agreements with Russia and China within which their objectives in Mongolia were first outlined and then confirmed.

Keywords: Chinese continent; European powers; Japanese leaders; Meiji Restoration; modern period; Mongolia; Russia



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