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Chapter Summary

The Chinese term luan offers a fluid means to interpret the history of the Catholic Church within China from 1900 to 1949. This chapter summarises four periods between 1900 to 1949. In view of the segregation of the sexes in China, the conversion of women presented a serious challenge for the early Catholic missionaries. In order to overcome this serious obstacle, the foreign priests trained indigenous laywomen to propagate the faith among women. The eventful history of Protestant missions in Republican China is extraordinarily complex. After 1900 the missionary enterprise became far more diverse, as a bewildering variety of new Protestant organisations, large and small, were establishing themselves throughout the country - not to mention the many groups, separated by belief and nationality, operating on the fringes of what used to be called 'China Proper'.

Keywords: Catholic Church; Catholic missionaries; China; foreign priests; Protestant missions

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