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Martin Luther

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Chapter Summary

Martin Luther (1483-1546) wrote his marginal notes on Peter Lombard's Sentences as baccalaureus sententiarius during the years 1509- 1511. After the years as bachelor of the Sentences Luther never lectured on the Lombard again, although his later marginal notes on Gabriel Biel's Collectorium reveal some interest in the tradition of the Sentences commentary. Luther adopted the Augustinian interpretation of the righteousness of God, which made a definite difference from medieval scholasticism. Seeberg even contended that Luther's notes reveal an affinity only to philosophical "nominalism," while any theological "Ockhamism" is almost completely absent. By studying Augustine's De Trinitate Luther was able to acquaint himself with the roots of western Trinitarian theology, as presented by the Lombard and his commentators. It has been customary to consider Luther's treatment of Christological questions in the marginal notes against the backdrop of the via moderna, particularly that of Pierre d'Ailly and Gabriel Biel.

Keywords: Augustine's De Trinitate; Gabriel Biel; Martin Luther; medieval scholasticism; Peter Lombard; Sentences commentary; theology of Ockham; via moderna

10.1163/ej.9789004118614.i-551.85
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