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V. Impacts

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Chapter Summary

The detrimental effect of air pollution upon humans was first recognized in international law with the 1985 Helsinki Protocol. Although the impact of air pollution on humans was not specifically acknowledged in the 1988 Sofia Protocol, it was acknowledged in the 1991 VOC Protocol, and the 1994 Oslo Protocol. Air pollution, including sulphur, nitrogen, and ammonia can damage trees, plants and crops by affecting the balance of heavy metals in the soils. The impacts of air pollution upon the cultural environment are because although air pollution often returns to the Earth in a wet form as rain, if the conditions are dry for a prolonged period, SO2 and SPMs may be deposited in a continuous manner upon what they settle on. A depleted ozone layer lets in increased levels of UV light, and UV-B in particular, which may have adverse effects on humans and other species.

Keywords: air pollution; cultural environment; detrimental effect; Oslo Protocol; Sofia Protocol; SPMs; VOC Protocol



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