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Chapter Summary

Article 66 contains special rights to the benefits of least-developed countries (LDCs). The TRIPS makes a clear distinction between developing countries and least-developed countries. These special rights refer to the transitional periods of implementation and technology transfer. It was recognized from very early on that developing countries would need certain privileges to enable them to participate equally in world trade. This was already reflected in the principles and goals of Art. XXXVI GATT 1947. A further development took place with the so-called "enabling clause." In the Ministerial Decision on the GATT 1947 in 1979, the Contracting Parties, for the first time, made a further distinction between developing countries and least-developed countries, and granted further privileges to the latter. As with Art. 65 it was under discussion how long the transitional period should be and whether different standards should apply to the two groups.

Keywords: developing countries; GATT; least-developed countries (LDCs); special rights; transitional periods; TRIPS; world trade



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