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The development of marxism: From the end of marxism-leninism to a thousand marxisms – France-Italy, 1975–2005

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Chapter Summary

The inglorious end of Soviet Communism, the dissolution of the USSR, the victory of liberal democracy, and especially that of the capitalist world economy, seemed to mark the end of Marxism and close down any possibility of renewal. While Marxism-Leninism sank ever deeper into irreversible crisis and moved towards its end, several major operations of theoretical reconstruction testified to the contradictory vitality of the hard core of Marx's oeuvre. Between 1968 and 1977, the last attempts at a revival of Marxist theory in the tracks of the Third International, or on its margins, emerged. France is one of the countries where the crisis of Marxism was virulent. Althusserianism had had the merit of posing the issue of what the Third International represented. Utopianism is the dream of a normative community where the plurality of human individualities must necessarily be subjected to an a priori model of socialisation.

Keywords: Marxism-Leninism; Post-Althusserianism; Utopianism



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