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Conclusions: the Variable Political and Legal Geography of People Smuggling and Trafficking in Europe

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Chapter Summary

This book began with a question about the intersection of administrative and criminal law as regards the treatment of foreigners. By looking at the field of trafficking and smuggling of people, it sought to understand how, in six EU Member States and at EU level itself, the casting of act of crossing borders as a criminal activity is taking place and how it is perceived. The concepts of smuggling and trafficking of persons can only be understood within a context of borders and border controls. In all Member States considered the crimes of smuggling and trafficking raise difficult questions both about perpetrators and victims. Trafficked persons are by and large defined in legislation of the states considered here as victims of crime of trafficking which includes an element of coercion and threat of violence. This concluding chapter gives an overview of the issues discussed in other chapters of the book.

Keywords: criminal law; EU Member States; smuggling; trafficking



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