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2. New Reform Initiatives: the Struggle for Legitimacy and Effectiveness, 2003 to 2006

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Chapter Summary

A fundamental assessment of the United Nations' operations was initiated by the Secretary General following the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001 and the failure of the Security Council to either endorse or prevent military action in Iraq. At the centre of this assessment were concepts such as the nature of new threats, the right of self-defence, the legitimacy of preventive and pre-emptive action, the response to terrorism and the effectiveness of the Security Council. The Secretary General's reform proposals were presented as a global bargain linking security, human rights and development issues. Submitted to the World Summit for approval, the report was presented as package deal. The Summit was significant and proved able to reach agreement on important new directions to strengthen the United Nations and multilateralism.

Keywords: human rights; Iraq; legitimacy; multilateralism; security council; terrorist attacks; United Nations reform; World Summit



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