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Chapter Summary

The Kurd minority group constitutes a community of several million people, spread over Iraq, Turkey, Iran and Syria, with small numbers also residing in Lebanon and Armenia. The majority Shiite community of Iraq, generally said to have been deprived of equality of opportunity in Sunni-led Iraq, has always formed a spiritual community with political undertones within the country. Unlike ancient Egypt, which discovered unity around the river Nile and propagated a culture of uniformity, Mesopotamia was informed by multiplicity and variety. After the June 1967 war with Israel in which token Iraqi forces were sent to Jordan to take part, Iraq broke off relations with the USA and Great Britain and instead forged closer links with the USSR and France. Nowadays in the UN High Commissioner's reading of the situation, most refugee crises occurred as a result of "vicious internal conflicts, rooted in nationalistic, ethnic and religious hatred".

Keywords: Great Britain; Iraq; Mesopotamia; refugee crises; Shiite community; Sunni; UN High Commissioner; USA



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