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Portsmouth denied: The chinese attempt to attend

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Chapter Summary

One interesting aspect of the Russo-Japanese War is that the battles took place on the territory of neutral countries. Ian Nish focuses on Japanese determination which favored Chinese neutrality as opposed to aiding Russia. This chapter reveals China's intention to send her delegation to the Portsmouth Conference and the US response to China's request. As the relevant Chinese archival sources are limited, it is largely based on U.S. and Japanese diplomatic documents along with memoirs and news articles from various countries. In March 1899, US Secretary of State John Hay circulated his first Open Door note, which as a reaction to imperialism argued for commercial equality among great powers. President Roosevelt shared many of the dominant ideas of his day, such as progressivism, social Darwinism, imperialism, and naval expansionism.

Keywords: China; John Hay; Open Door note; Portsmouth Conference; President Roosevelt; Russo-Japanese War



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