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Numismatic evidence for a chronological framework for pre-Kaniskan art, from Kalchayan to Gandhara

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Chapter Summary

Coins are fundamentally different from other objects of antique art in that they are produced in substantial numbers by a mint which is a government establishment that must have been given specific instructions about the types and legends to be employed. It is possible for 20,000 or more coins to be struck by a single die, and most types survive in substantial numbers. The coinages fall into four principal groupings, one in Bactria (Afghanistan north of the Hindu Kush), a second in the Paropamisadae (east Afghanistan south of the Hindu Kush), a third in Gandhāra and Taxila (north Pakistan between the Kunar and Hypanis Rivers) and a fourth in the east Pānjab (between Sialkot and Mathurā).

Keywords: Bactria; Chronological Framework; Gandhāra; Graeco-Bactrian; Khalchayan; Kuṣāṇas; numismatic analysis; Numismatic Evidence; Paropamisadae; Taxila



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