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Child care in a low birth society

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Chapter Summary

This chapter presents how children are cared for in modern Japan with paying attention to the institutional settings. The first part describes features of labour force participation of married women in Japan. The labour participation ratio of women by different age groups is still clearly M-shaped, reflecting the fact that women tend to leave the labour market after giving birth and returning to employment after their children are grown up. The second part presents child-care arrangements of pre-school children. The third part overviews child-care systems in Japan. Child care and educational institutions for pre-school age children in Japan can be classified into three types: licensed day-care centres, non-licensed day-care centres and kindergartens. The fourth part describes who bears the child-care costs. The running costs of licensed day-care centres for FY2003 amounted to 1,528 billion Yen. The last part discusses topics in child care and gives some concluding remarks.

Keywords: birth society; child-care system; Japanese woman; kindergartens; labour force



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