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Papal Policy On The Baltic Crusades During The Pontificates Of Gregory IX (1227–41) And Innocent IV (1243–54)

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Chapter Summary

Gregory IX supported a variety of crusades in the Baltic region, as his pontificate saw the creation of two new models for crusades there. The first of the ‘new’ models was seen with the arrival of the Teutonic Order. The second ‘new’ model is revealed in the crusading bull of 1236 which authorized a crusade conducted along yet different lines. The Teutonic Order had a well-established relationship with the pope and his curia and was able to influence papal policy and suggest innovations, thereby contributing to the formation of the curial policy on the Baltic crusades. During the pontificate of Gregory’s successor, Innocent IV, the crusades in the Baltic were driven forward by the Teutonic Order and Scandinavian royal powers. Innocent strongly endorsed the Baltic crusades and made it clear that he regarded the Baltic crusades to be of equal importance to the crusades in aid of the Holy Land.

Keywords: Baltic crusades; Christian powers; Gregory IX; Holy Land; Innocent IV; papal policy; Scandinavian royal powers; Teutonic Order



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