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Concluding Remarks

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Chapter Summary

The foregoing chronological study of sculptures reveals that the region of Mathura was the seat of a fully developed school of art and architecture for more than two hundred and fifty years prior to the reign of Kaniṣka. Sculptural styles evolved without hiatus from ca. 150 BCE through the beginning of the second century CE, the art of each successive period imbuing familiar forms with new modes of expression. The history of pre-Kuṣāṇa art at Mathura is rich and complex, reflective of a vital cosmopolitan center where diverse religions and numerous subsects coexisted and thrived. The unique intersection of multiple religious ideals and mores combined with the diverse ethnicities in early Mathura provides a setting for innovations in art and iconography that influenced other regions and affected the subsequent unfolding of Indian art.

Keywords: Kaniṣka reign; Mathura; pre-Kuṣāṇa art; sculptures



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