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The History Of The Qumran Community In The Light Of Recently Available Texts

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Chapter Summary

Norman Golb postulates that the scrolls come from different libraries of Jerusalem and that they represent the literature of the whole of the Judaism of the time. Golb's theory fails to explain the archaeological facts, it is not compatible with the absence of compositions to which could be ascribed a Pharisaic origin, and it does not explain the homogeneous character of the collection as a whole or of the collection of each cave in spite of the diversity of compositions there included. In the author's opinion, only four hypotheses need to be considered: three that in one way or another connect the community of Qumran with the Essenes, and a fourth that connects the community with the Sadducees. This chapter examines which of these four theories is the most congruent with the evidence now available. It therefore concentrates on documents, namely: 4QMMT; 4QDamascus; 4QSerek-Damascus and the different Calendars.

Keywords: 4QDamascus; 4QMMT; 4QSerek-Damascus; Calendars; community of Qumran; Essenes; Judaism; Sadducees



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