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Qumran Origins And Early History: A Groningen Hypothesis

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Chapter Summary

"A Groningen Hypothesis" is an attempt coherently to relate to each other the apparently contradictory data furnished by the Dead Sea manuscripts as to the primitive history of the Qumran Community. Josephus, who tells us more than anyone else about the Essene movement, first brings them onto the political scene in Palestine in the time of Jonathan together with the Sadducees and Pharisees. This seems to imply that he sees the Essene movement, like that of the Pharisees and Sadducees, as a typically Palestinian phenomenon. At the origins of the particular development within Essenism which is to issue in the formation of the Qumran sect can be found the powerful figure whom, for lack of a specific name, we call by the title attributed to him by the sectarian writers: the Teacher of Righteousness.

Keywords: Dead Sea manuscripts; Essene movement; Groningen hypothesis; Palestinian phenomenon; Qumran Community; Qumran sect



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