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The Dutch-Chinese-European Triangle

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Chapter Summary

Since the official establishment of the Canton System in 1760, every year the delegates of the Dutch East India Company (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie (VOC)), as well as those of the other European companies, had remained in Canton during the trading season and in Macao during the off-season. Under such conditions, they would perforce interact in various ways not only with the Chinese merchants and local authorities but also with the servants of other companies and the Macao Government. This chapter sets out three cases which collectively gives a fine illustration of the Dutch-Chinese-European (principally English and Portuguese) triangle. As far as relations with the Chinese were concerned, the VOC trade representatives in Canton were well aware of the need to preserve agreeable contacts with the Chinese merchants and to remain on good terms with the mandarins.

Keywords: Canton System; Chinese merchants; Dutch East India Company; Dutch-Chinese-European triangle; Macao Government; Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie (VOC)



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