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Index Of Ancient Sources

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Chapter Summary

This section presents a list of ancient sources from Jewish texts, Mesopotamian texts, Greek and Latin texts, Christian texts, Mandean texts, Arabic texts, and English texts. The textual evidence for physiognomic interests extends from the early second millennium BCE until modern times, and includes divination, literature, medicine, art, and philosophy. The scientific context of physiognomics in Greco-Roman antiquity was different. Skulls were not measured; the outline of the skull was not deemed as significant as in Lavater’s days. Instead, Greco-Roman physiognomics should be understood against another (physiological) background. A number of texts from the Dead Sea Scrolls have in common that they give descriptions and characterizations of the human body. These descriptions do not display a mere interest in human anatomy or in the body per se.

Keywords: Dead Sea Scrolls; Greco-Roman antiquity; human anatomy; Jewish texts

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