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Rwandan History

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Chapter Summary

During the division of Africa among the European powers in 1884, Rwanda was ascribed to Germany and consequently Count von Giitzen went to the African country known as &t;Ruanda.&t; The Germans, who were only present in a very small number, followed a policy of indirect rule and allowed Rwanda's monarchy to continue. German colonial rule continued the Tutsi dominance and reinforced the position of power of the Tutsi's. The German rule in Rwanda was taken over by the Belgians after the First World War. The result of the Belgian rule was therefore that the Hutu were systematically removed from positions of power. In 1933, all Rwandans were given an identity card by which they were classified as Hutu, Tusti or Twa. The killing of hundreds of thousands of Tutsi in the genocide of 1994 constituted by far the worst massacre between Hutu and Tutsi in Rwandan history.

Keywords: Belgian colonial rule; German colonial rule; Hutu dominance; identity card; Rwandan history; Tutsi dominance

10.1163/ej.9789004157811.i-299.17
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