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'Distress' In The Literature On Dharma And Artha

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Chapter Summary

This chapter explores the notion of 'distress' (āpad, vyasana, kṛcchra) in the dharmaśāstra tradition, tracing its development from the early dharmasūtras through to the dharmaśāstras and paying particular attention to its representation in Manu. It also explores the topic as it is found in the Arthaśāstra, the oldest and most important representative of the arthaśāstra tradition. The chapter elucidates the notions and problems that circulate around 'āpad' as they are dealt with in texts which provide a background to understand the Āpaddharmaparvan (ĀDhP's) handling of āpaddharma. The traditions represented particularly by the Manusmṛti; Mānava Dharmaśāstra (MS) and the Kauṭilīya Arthaśāstra (KA) bear a close relationship to the ĀDhP, making these texts the principal focus throughout this chapter. It begins with the dharmasūtras, late vedic texts that, though only briefly dealing with the problem of conduct in times of distress, reveal it in its nascent form.

Keywords: Āpaddharmaparvan (ĀDhP); āpaddharma; Arthaśāstra; dharmaśāstra; dharmasūtras; Kauṭilīya Arthaśāstra (KA); Manava Dharmasastra (MS); Manu



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