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VIII. The challenges of modernity: The case of political Islam

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Chapter Summary

Since the Industrial Revolution in the late eighteenth century in England, all traditional cultures at one point in history have been challenged by modernity. The scholar Samuel Huntington perceives the phenomenon of political Islam as a characteristic of inevitable “clash of civilizations,” according to which, conflicts and threats to global peace and security in the twenty-first century will be carried out along “civilizational fault lines.” Islam as political ideology was a response to the expansion of Europe and the decline of Islamic empires (Ottoman-Turkey, Safavid-Persian, Mughal- India) in the nineteenth century. From the 1970s onwards, the unsuccessful modernization project of the post-colonial secular state and the conflict between religious nationalism and secular nationalism were the subjects of intense dissatisfaction in vast sections of the Greater Middle East (GME).

Keywords: clash of civilizations; Europe; Greater Middle East (GME); Industrial Revolution; modernity; political ideology; political Islam; post-colonial secular state; Samuel Huntington; secular nationalism



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