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Chapter Summary

The 'Russian Question' was an absolutely central problem for Marxism in the twentieth century. The concept of 'Western Marxism' is used in different ways. It was, as Castoriadis put it, 'the touchstone of theoretical and practical attitudes which lay claim to revolution'. It is commonly taken to refer to a group of Western authors who applied themselves to the study and critique of cultural and ideological developments. In the case of a topic such as the political and economic nature of the Soviet Union, it is obvious that the most relevant contextual relationships are very likely to be political and economic in the first instance. At the end of the 1950s, the disintegration of the conception of a uniform sequence of development (unilinearism) began.

Keywords: Castoriadis; Marxism; Soviet Union; unilinearism



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