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From The October Revolution To The Stalin Era (191729)

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Chapter Summary

The years 1917-29 marked an era in which the social situation in the Soviet Union was uncertain and unstable in every respect. Initially, the new régime expected to be freed rapidly from its political isolation by a revolution in Western Europe. From 1918, Karl Kautsky carried on a persistent 'ideological crusade against bolshevism', as Salvadori put it. Kautsky's linear reasoning was elaborated especially in his polemical confrontations with Bolshevik authors. This chapter discusses three of these debates: successively, those with Lenin, with Trotsky and with Bukharin. In 1922, Paul Levi published the main text of Rosa Luxemburg's pamphlet The Russian Revolution. György Lukács claimed there was a direct connection between the earlier writings by Luxemburg - which had made explicit her differences with Lenin - and the later pamphlet about the October Revolution.

Keywords: Bolshevism; Karl Kautsky; Lenin; Luxemburg; October Revolution; Russian revolution; Soviet Union; Western Europe



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