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Mining, metallurgy and the metal industry

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Chapter Summary

Mining comprises the extraction and refining of ore; metallurgy involves the smelting of metal from ores; the processing of metal includes the casting and forging of metal objects. Numerous deposits of ores of copper, gold, and cassiterite, from which tin is acquired, are known across the territory of the Andronovo culture. This chapter attributes a mine to the Andronovo culture on the basis of Andronovo ceramics or tools in an ancient quarry or dump. The work of E. N. Chernykh marks a new stage in the study of Andronovo metallurgy. In 1967-1968 he examined the ancient ore sources of the Urals and studied the composition of ancient metal artifacts in comparison with ores from known deposits, defining metal groups according to their chemistry, and connecting some of them with ancient mines. The discovery of the Sintashta settlements of metallurgists in the Urals was a major event in Andronovo research.

Keywords: ancient quarry; Andronovo culture; metal industry; metallurgy; mining; Sintashta settlements; Urals



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