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Cultures of central Asia in the 4th-3rd millennia BC

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Chapter Summary

Economic and cultural zones formed in Central Asia during the 4th-3rd millennia BC. In Turkestan, the low land territory and the lower reaches of the Tedjen river saw the development of the farming culture of Anau brought about by migration from Iran, or Namazga. In the 3rd millennium BC the lands of southern Central Asia and northern Afghanistan, were occupied by a farming population that had migrated from various regions of the ancient Near East: from Iran, Baluchistan and India. The migrants brought with them the achievements of Near Eastern civilization: the producing economy, the skills of manufacturing painted ceramics, metallurgy and metalworking as well as wheeled transport, which enabled wide exchange relations to be established. In Eurasia during the late 3rd millennium BC there occurred an ecological crisis that aggravated the existing acute economic problems, thus triggering an internal political crisis and leading to a widescale disaster.

Keywords: Anau; central Asia; eastern civilization; Eurasia; farming culture; India; Iran; northern Afghanistan; Turkestan



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