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Trans-Caspia and Turkmenia

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Chapter Summary

The settling of Trans-Caspia and western Turkmenia in the 12th-11th centuries BC was realized mainly by the Timber-grave population who, as the migration progressed, incorporated part of the western Andronovans. The migration went from the west through the Timber-grave-Andronovo contact zone on the left bank of the Volga and southern Ural. One migration route went along the Emba, and another from the midstream of the Ural to the west of the Aral Sea, then further alongside the Uzboy and to the south. On the Murgab the immigration may have followed the central Amu-Darya. The cartography of the sites and the superposition of the maps of the later seasonal migrations demonstrate their coincidence. Hence, pastoralists as early as the12th-11th centuries BC developed the traditional routes of nomadic migrations that functioned up to the 19th century.

Keywords: pastoralists; Timber-grave population; Trans-Caspia; western Andronovans; western Turkmenia



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