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The relations of the eleventh-century Tsong Kha tribal confederation to its neighbour states on the silk road

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Chapter Summary

This chapter focuses on the little known examples of interactions between Tsong kha and the former Silk Road states such as Gaochang, Khotan, Kucha, Ganzhou, Liangzhou, Suzhou, Guazhou and Shazhou. Liangzhou has a long history as a major trading post on the Silk Road and as an important Buddhist centre that dates back to at least the fourth century C.E. Ganzhou had been dominated by the Uighurs at least since the early tenth century. The Uighurs dominated the Kucha area at least since the late ninth century. Khotan maintained tribute relations with Song China starting from the mid-tenth century and often sent monks on these missions. Tsong kha played a vital strategic role during most of the eleventh century and thus continuously entertained political, military and economic relations with its many neighbours, of which the intensity varied according to the actual geopolitica.

Keywords: Ganzhou; Khotan; Kucha; Liangzhou; Silk Road; Tsong kha; Uighurs



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