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Chapter Summary

Hamilcar faced 'a great dilemma and one difficult to get out of ': he must either risk a battle or starve. What happened next, Polybius implies, came virtually out of the blue. One of the Numidian leaders, maybe their chief, was a young nobleman named Naravas, commanding no fewer than 2,000 horsemen. This looks like the entire Numidian force, for afterwards Spendius is reported giving battle only with his own and Autaritus' men and the new Libyan division. Not only were there long-standing links with Carthage in Naravas' family, but he himself had a strong admiration for Hamilcar. Without indicating any details of time or place, Polybius shows that campaigning went on (though a winter pause is plausible) and Hamilcar was again to find himself in difficulties. On more than one front, in fact, the war was soon to bring even more dangers on the Carthaginians.

Keywords: Autaritus; Carthage; Hamilcar; Libyan; Naravas; Numidian leaders; Polybius; Spendius



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