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4 Universal Order in Classical Antiquity

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Chapter Summary

Nowhere was the escape from "survival-mode" society more dramatic than in Mediterranean cultures of ancient Greece and Rome. There, in particular, highly developed literary traditions produced impressive exponents of civic ideals, who provided the intellectual foundations for the future development of international law, beyond the limited visions of primitive antiquity. Order was conceived as a human need, a universal necessity. It would now become possible to imagine universal order. It was in this period that most philosophic traditions were formed, coinciding with most pan-religious organizations, hailed as the means by which the meaning of life is explained-or feared and reviled as the gathering of enemy beliefs and values. Although the Greeks contributed very significantly to the development of international diplomacy in various ways, their principal legacy as early practitioners of international law was in the use of arbitration, in lieu of war, for the settlement of disputes arising among them.

Keywords:arbitration; classical antiquity; dispute settlement; Greece; international diplomacy; international law; primitive antiquity; Rome; universal order



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