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14 Livelihoods And Landscapes: People, Resources And Land Use

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Chapter Summary

This chapter brings to a conclusion that the main issues are raised in this book and provides some ideas on the type of policies that are needed to enhance land-based livelihoods in the Eastern Cape Province and possibly elsewhere in South Africa. The empirical material in the book shows that there are still remnants of a peasantry in villages of Guquka and Koloni, albeit few and limited in extent. The evidence presented indicates a long process of retreat of the agrarian in the rural central Eastern Cape province. Critical examination of past and contemporary interventions in these rural areas, such as betterment planning and land and agrarian reform initiatives, raises questions about the role of expert knowledge in rural and agrarian development in South Africa. There are elements of continuity in the approach being used, leading to the conclusion that alternative expert curricula in agriculture and rural development are needed.

Keywords: agrarian development; Eastern Cape Province; Guquka; Koloni; land-based livelihoods; South Africa



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