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4 A Social History Of Guquka And Koloni: Settlement And Resources

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Chapter Summary

This chapter deals with the specifics of settlement, the introduction of various categories of land use and land tenure, the allocation of land, the dynamics of betterment planning as a government response to resource degradation, and related aspects of natural resource management. Guquka and Koloni had rather contrasting experiences of betterment planning which is conventionally viewed in the literature as an attempt to socially and physically restructure and reorganise the so-called native reserves. The settlement of Guquka is closely linked with those of its neighbouring villages. Its origin, like these neighbouring villages, stemmed from the settlement of the Makhuzeni tribe in the Tyume valley. The establishment of Koloni, on the other hand, seems much less coherent. In contrast to nearly all other parts of the Ciskei homeland, Koloni welcomed betterment planning as a way to increase its agricultural output.

Keywords: agricultural development; Ciskei; Guquka; Koloni; natural resource management; settlement patterns; Tyume valley



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