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12 Contemporary Livelihoods

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Chapter Summary

This chapter describes contemporary livelihoods in the two villages (Guquka and Koloni). The survey data of 1997, partly updated in 2004, provided information on the key resources around which livelihoods revolved and allowed for the identification of the types of livelihood that occurred in the two villages. Besides land-based sources, the chapter also considered other sources of livelihood. Some of these sources were located outside the boundaries of the villages, but they contributed to livelihood in the villages through kinship relationships and relationships between the state and its citizens. The chapter shows that livelihood in the villages primarily revolved around remittances, state transfers in the form of social grants and employment. The data show that in terms of social relations, rural livelihoods were primarily based on claims against kin and particularly against the state, and in this way spanned domain beyond the rural village per se.

Keywords: contemporary livelihoods; Guquka; Koloni; rural village; social relations



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