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Phase Ib

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Chapter Summary

The construction of the first two Long Walls (Ia) had resolved a critical weakness in Athens' defenses by creating a fortified link between the asty and its harbors. Less than two decades after establishing that connection, however, the Long Walls (Ia) had themselves become vulnerable. Thus, adapting to new circumstances, the Athenians added a third Long Wall (Ib), the Middle or Southern Wall, during the later 440s. The new structure ran down to Piraeus alongside the phase Ia structure joining the asty with that port city. Dating the phase Ib Long Wall depends on several literary passages as well as one of the records documenting the construction of the Parthenon.

Keywords:Athen; Long Walls; Phaleron; Piraeus



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