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Extra Ecclesiam Salus Non Est—Sed Quae Ecclesia?: Ecclesiology And Authority In The Later Middle Ages

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Chapter Summary

The goal of this chapter is to begin to understand the various major answers to the questions that were available at the start of the Schism in 1378, as well as those that developed in light of the Schism in the decades that followed. It begins by analyzing the starting point of most 14th-century ecclesiology, the system of absolute papal monarchy. The chapter then turns to an analysis of two of opponents, Marsilius of Padua and William of Ockham, both of whom challenged the fundamental claims of papal monarchy and offered an alternative ecclesiology in its stead. Finally, it turns to the most important development during the time of the Schism, the conciliar ecclesiology that eventually carried the day at Constance and succeeded in ending the papal crisis, perhaps best represented by Jean Gerson.

Keywords: absolute papal monarchy; Marsilius of Padua; Roman ecclesiology; Schism; William of Ockham



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