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History of the South Tyrol Conflict and Its Settlement

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Chapter Summary

In late summer 2006, politicians and historians in South Tyrol and its southern neighbouring province Trentino argued about whether or not to celebrate an anniversary of the Gruber-Degasperi Agreement concerning the fate of the German-speaking population living in Italy. The Agreement is unanimously considered to be the document that made today?s autonomous system possible. This chapter sheds light on the history of the South Tyrol conflict, concentrating mainly on the events after the end of the First World War, when South Tyrol became a part of Italy. It examines the period before the annexation by Italy in order to get an idea of the initial situation. The history of South Tyrol after the annexation can be roughly divided into three main periods: the period of fascism (1922?1943), the period of the first (regional) autonomy (1948?1972) and the period of the second (provincial) autonomy (1972 to present).

Keywords: fascism; First World War; German-speaking population; Gruber-Degasperi Agreement; Italy; provincial autonomy; regional autonomy; South Tyrol conflict; Trentino



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