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Achaemenian Seals Found In Georgia

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Chapter Summary

The Achaemenian seals are of various forms: cylindrical, conical, pyramidal, scaraboid and many-sided (multi-facet). As for the material, the seals were normally made of chalcedony of different colours. The most popular among them was a pale-white and sky-blue sapphirin; agate and carnelian were rarely used. This chapter provides six Achaemenian seals, which were found in Georgia and clearly demonstrate the diverse character of Achaemenian glyptic objects. Two of them belong to the seals of the "Oriental Royal Style" according to J. Boardman, the third is an "Occidental Royal Style" seal, one belongs to the "Greco-Oriental" group and two others to the "Bern group". Three of them were found in burials of the Roman period, two in burials of the 4th century BC, while the origin of the last one is unknown.

Keywords: Achaemenian seals; Bern group; Georgia; glyptic object; Greco-oriental; occidental royal style; oriental royal style



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