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Crimes against Fundamental Human Rights

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Chapter Summary

It is well-established that prohibitions against slavery and slave-related practices have achieved the level of customary international law and have attained jus cogens status. In addition to slavery and slave-related practices, trafficking in persons for sexual exploitation emerged in the 1920s, but since the 1960s has become a significant international phenomenon. The discussion of apartheid first considers the intellectual antecedents of the Convention in international law and United Nations practice. Then, it examines the substantive provisions of the Convention and the machinery provisions of the Convention. Next is a discussion of the apartheid provisions in the Draft Code of Crimes and the Rome Statute. The section on international law to torture discusses the concept of criminality involved in the Convention in more detail below, but some preliminary points need to be made here. It discusses a worldwide historical overview of the use of torture.

Keywords: apartheid; enslavement; international law to torture; sexual exploitation; slave-related practices; slavery



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